DCloud Infrastructure

Made Easy

no need for middlemen, third-party services or full-node management

Direct data validation

fully decentralized authorization and identification

Web3 ID service

Sharding

first layer

Cross- Shard Validation

PowerOS

Power Nodes

third layer
second layer

Energy Efficient and Low Cost

The protocol is really lightweight and optimized for low-power resources

More than one

Multiple Virtual Machines
We use the most advanced WASM VM, and EVM!
Power ecosystem allows using several different VMs at the same time even in one shard, including competitive ones

Serverless backend for full-stack dapps
Real dapps are executed in a decentralized network and have no single point of failure
E.g. this eliminates the problem of the sniper miners' attacks on liquidity!

Uncensored Synchronous BFT Consensus

Node(s) can't any influence on execution or transactions' order within a block.

SHARDING

E.g. this eliminates the problem of the sniper miners' attacks on liquidity!
The Power protocol has no bottlenecks
Shards communicate peer to peer without losing the consensus of the whole network
Every new shard increases the transactions' speed. More shards = more speed.
Is achieved by the patented technology of unlimited sharding invented by Power team.
Unlimited scalability of the processing speed

SCALING

special shards for storage and distribution of all frontend and static files

Decentralized Storage

Decentralized Computing

special shards for decentralized backend
No special skills are required - any web developer can access the Power Network via REST API without need for a middleman like node provider. The whole Web is just at your fingertips.

Power API: Designed for Mass Adoption

Data directly from network

The user application retrieves data directly from the Power Ecosystem. To prevent DDoS threats, it is possible to receive data from special purpose
"read only" nodes.

Interface for mass adoption

A user-friendly interface for developers that do not require special skills allows integrating blockchain in the classic, generic applications and making them really decentralized

Auto data validation

A feature, responsible for acquiring and validating data in a trustless manner.
This ensures that data received from the decentralized network is 100%
tamperproof & integer

Web3 Cloud: Zero-Maintenance Services

PowerOS monitors the state of each shard in order to proactively and automatically re-distribute nodes between all shards to guarantee flawless continuity and high availability of service
These nodes are combined into fault-tolerant shards that operate as long as at least 50% of the nodes in the network are operational
The Power Ecosystem consists of many nodes located around the world

Low-level libraries for popular languages

Automation modules for popular UI Frameworks

Smart-contracts as a web3 backend can be written in high-level languages and then compiled into WASM code

How is linear scaling achieved?
Automatic sharding + shard management by Management layer.
What interactions occur at the Management layer, and which at the Shards layer?
Management layer: registration of the user (account), registration of shards, registration of private shards, registration of nodes, appointment of examning nodes (validators), nodes punishment. In the Management layer, transactions are checked by all nodes of the system, therefore, this is an expensive interaction.
Shards layer: all classic transactions that exist in regular classic blockchains
How is your sharding different from similar solutions?
Now there are no well-established parameters by which shardings are compared, each project has its own characteristics.
However, our CTO, Igor Belousov, proposed his classification for distributed systems with sharding. Below is a table comparing known platforms.
Note: not all information was published by some of mentioned projects.


If there is a main chain in the system, this means that the speed of validation of any transaction is equal to the rate of validation in the main chain - 2-3 minutes in general. There is an opinion that when there is a main chain, these are actually different blockchains combined in one platform, and not a single blockchain network.
State refers to all system parameters at the moment (all accounts, the amount of funds for them, smart contracts and their status). If the state is full (for example, in the Zilliqa project), all nodes must store all the information that is energy consuming. Easier validation here is the main advantage. Sharding state - each shard works completely separately, validation takes considerable time. We have a mixed state type. Part of the data (state of shards, accounts belonging to shards, state accounts, private shards, whick nodes are validators) is stored on all nodes. And the data that is processed is stored inside the shard.
Cross-shard transactions (between shards) - in most projects go through the main chain, but in our system - directly.
What is the main difference between the Resonance consensus and other BFT protocols?
The most important difference is there is no leader in the shard, a block is created collectively by all nodes. In the other consensuses, the block is usually created by the leader node and then confirmed by the others.
Thus, we reduce the number of coordination steps and, most importantly, completely remove the possibility of censorship, the seizure of control over the shards management is possible only if more than half of the nodes have colluded.
Since all nodes can submit their information, we are going to use mandatory actions to create additional sources of entropy to create a randomizer as close as possible to reality. We enter into each block such data from each node that cannot be predicted, because these data are signed with their private keys, and it is problematic to hack them. On each block new data is entered signed by keys.
Due to what is the transaction validation time less than 1 second achieved?
Reduced the number of matching steps to 3.
The maximum number of nodes in a shard is no more than 150. BFT protocols work as quickly as possible on a small number of nodes.
How is the decentralization of the system implemented:
Technological decentralization is achieved through the BFT-like protocol Resonance
Economic (socio-economic) decentralization is executed through the PoS (proof-of-stake) algorithm. It is beneficial for the owner to protect his node from seizure and not economically profitable to compromise the system.
What is the difference between mining and minting?
Unlike mining, minting does not require calculation, the node receives a reward for the very fact of block creation.
How often are validators changed?
Validators are changed every 1 hour (every 3600 blocks).
What are Smart key tokens? How does Smart Key allocate their tokens?
When a block comes from someone else`s shard, the present validator knows which a validator is responsible for it (we described above what is included in the full state). If more than 50% of validators have signed a block, then the validator decides to do so.
What will happen to the data if the attackers destroy the shard?
Shard status data is stored in two other shards. The last 2-3 blocks may disappear, all previous will be restored.
How is your platform protected from attack 51%?
To capture the platform management system - Management Layer, it is necessary to capture more than 50% of all nodes in all shards. This condition is similar to those working in systems with PoW. Capturing a separate shard will also lead to nothing - since all transactions of the shard are checked by external validators. And in order to confidently capture the majority of validators, it is necessary to get the majority of all nodes. Which leads us to the same indicators of security.
Is there a defense against a Sybil attack?
Protection against Sybil attack is PoS (proof-of-stake) mechanism. In order for a node to be connected to the system, its owner must send 500,000 SK tokens to a specific system address.
And the project itself, its innovative technologies are somehow protected?
All components of The Power platform are written completely from scratch by the project developers, the key features of the project are patented, that protects the project its partners and customers from potential external influences, vulnerabilities or control attempts.